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A cult suicide is a term used to describe the mass suicide by the members of groups that have been considered cults. *"Suicide Terrorists: Are They Suicidal?" Ellen Townsend. "Suicide & Life - Threatening Behavior". New York: Feb 2007. Vol. 37, Iss. 1; pg. 35, 15 pgs: "There are some other examples of suicides involving group (e.g., cult suicides) and dyadic (e.g., suicide pacts) processes; but these are very rare." *"Leadership races need a little drama"; Tim Harper. "Toronto Star". Toronto, Ont.: Apr 19, 2003. pg. F.02: "... a vote for Campbell was akin to the party drinking its Kool-Aid, a stunning reference to the mass cult suicide at Jonestown in Guyana." *"Suicidal credo that came from the West" Sam Kiley. "The Times". London (UK): Mar 20, 2000. pg. 3:"Until the weekend, suicidal doomsday cults were seen by Africans as a decadent Western luxury. But the deaths of more than 230 ordinary Ugandans ranks as the second-largest cult suicide in recent times." In some cases all, or nearly all members have committed suicide at the same time and place. Groups that have committed such mass suicides and that have been called cults include Heaven's Gate (religious Gate, Order of the Solar Temple, and Peoples Temple (in the Jonestown incident). In other cases, such as Filippians and the Taiping, a group has apparently supported mass suicide without necessarily encouraging all members to participate. Known cult suicides Peoples Temple On November 18, 1978, 918 Americans died in Peoples Temple-related incidents, including 909 members of the Temple, led by Jim Jones, in Jonestown, Guyana. "Foreword, The Assassination of Representative Leo J. Ryan and the Jonestown, Guyana Tragedy"], excerpt from: Report of a Staff Investigative Group to the Committee on Foreign Affairs, U.S. House of May 15, 1979 The dead included 274 children. A tape of the Temple's final meeting in a Jonestown pavilion contains repeated discussions of the group committing "revolutionary suicide," including reference to people taking the poison and the vats to be used. "Jonestown Audiotape Primary Project."] "Alternative Considerations of Jonestown and Peoples Temple". San Diego State University. On that tape, Jones tells Temple members that Russia, with whom the Temple had been negotiating a potential exodus for months, would not take them after the Temple had murdered Congressman Leo Ryan, NBC reporter Don Harris and three others at a nearby airstrip. When members apparently cried, Jones counseled "Stop this hysterics. This is not the way for people who are Socialists or Communists to die. No way for us to die. We must die with some dignity." At the end of the tape, Jones concludes: "We didn't commit suicide, we committed an act of revolutionary suicide protesting the conditions of an inhumane world." The people in Jonestown died of an apparent cyanide poisoning, except for Jones (injury consistent with self-inflicted gunshot wound) and his personal nurse. "Guyana Inquest of Cyrill Mootoo & Cecil Roberts] The Temple had spoken of committing "revolutionary suicide" in prior instances, and members had previously drunk what Jones told them was poison at least once before, but the "Flavor Aid" drink they ingested contained no poison. Layton, Deborah. (1998) "Seductive Poison". Anchor, 1999. ISBN 0-3854-8984-6. Concurrently, four other members died in the Temple's headquarters in Georgetown, Solar Temple From 1994 to 1997, the Order of the Solar Temple's members began a series of mass suicides, which led to roughly 74 deaths. Farewell letters were left by members, stating that they believed their deaths would be an escape from the "hypocrisies and oppression of this world." Added to this they felt they were "moving on to Sirius." Records seized by the Quebec police showed that some members had personally donated over $1 million to the cult's leader, Joseph Di Mambro. There was also another attempted mass suicide of the remaining members, which was thwarted in the late 1990s. All the and attempts occurred around the dates of the equinoxes and solstices, which likely held some relation to the beliefs of the group. THE SOLAR TEMPLE], Religious Tolerance.org, Retrieved 2007-10-13 Order of the Solar Temple], Virginia University, Retrieved 2007-10-13 Tragedy Of The Solar Temple Cult] Stephen Dafoe & Templar History Magazine, 2002, Retrieved 2007-10-13 Solar Temple: A cult gone wrong], CBC News, Retrieved 2007-10-13 Katherine Ramsland, Death Journey], Crime Library, , Retrieved 2007-10-13 Heaven's Gate On March 26 1997, 39 followers of Heaven's Gate (religious Gate died in a mass suicide in Rancho Santa Fe, California, which borders San Diego, California|San Diego to the north. These people believed, according to the teachings of their cult, that through their suicides they were "exiting their human vessels" so that their souls could go on a journey aboard a spaceship they believed to be following comet Hale-Bopp.