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  Linguistics is the scientific study of language. Someone who engages in this study is called a linguist . Linguistics can be theoretical or applied. The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to linguistics:  Essence of linguistics  : "Main article: Linguistics"  Branches of linguistics  * Theoretical linguistics * Applied linguistics  Subfields of linguistics  * Computational linguistics * Comparative linguistics * Contrastive linguistics * Corpus linguistics * Dialectology * Discourse analysis * Etymology * Forensic linguistics * Grammar * Historical linguistics * * Language didactics * Language learning * Language teaching * Language for specific purposes * Lexicology * Linguistic statistics * Linguistic typology * Morphology * * Orthography * Phonetics * Phonology * Pragmatics * * Rhetoric * Semantics * * Stylistics * Text linguistics  Schools, movements, and approaches of linguistics  * Cognitive linguistics * Danish School * Functionalism * Generative linguistics * Geneva School * * Prague School * Prescription and description * Soviet linguistics * linguistics * Structuralism * Systemic linguistics * SIL International * Tagmemics (See  History of linguistics  : "Main article: History of linguistics"  Timeline of discovery of basic linguistics concepts  "When were the basic concepts first described and by whom?" *  Sanskrit grammarians * Ancient Greek study of language * Roman elaborations of Greek study * Medieval philosophical work in Latin * Beginnings of modern linguistics in the 19th century * Behaviorism and mental "tabula rasa" hypothesis * Chomsky and functionalism * Generative grammar leads to generative phonology and semantics * Alternate syntactic systems develop in 80s * Computational linguistics becomes feasible the late 80s * and the biological basis of cognition  Basic questions in linguistics  "What are the basic questions asked in linguistics?" # What is language? # How did it/does it evolve? # How does language serve as a medium of communication? # How does language serve as a medium of thinking? # What is common to all languages? # How do languages differ? (The answers are not necessarily basic or easy to understand.)  Basic concepts  "What basic concepts / terms do I have to know to talk about linguistics?" * Morphology ** morpheme, inflection, Inflectional Derivation Compound * Phonology ** phoneme, segment syllable, foot stress * Grammar ** Grammatical tense|tense, aspect grammatical number, grammatical gender, declension * Syntax ** phrase, clause, grammatical function, grammatical voice * Lexicology ** word, lexeme, lemma, lexicon, vocabulary, terminology * Semantics ** meaning, sense, entailment, truth condition,  * Pragmatics ** implicature, deixis  Languages of the world   Languages by country   Linguistics scholars  :"Main article: List of linguists "People who had a significant influence on the development of the field" * John Langshaw Austin * Leonard Bloomfield * Franz Bopp * Noam Chomsky * M.A.K. Halliday * Louis Hjelmslev * Roman Jakobson * William Jones William Jones * * Kenneth L. Pike * Rasmus Rask * Edward Sapir * Ferdinand de Saussure * August Schleicher * John R. Searle * Claude Levi-Strauss * Nikolai Trubetzkoy * Noah Webster * Benjamin Lee Whorf  Linguistics lists  * List of ** Language families and languages ** ISO 639 ** List of official languages **  by language * Alphabets & Orthography {| border="1" |- ! width="600" colspan="6" | |- | width="100"| Arabic | width="100"| Aramaic | width="100"| Armenian | width="100"| Braille | width="100"| Coptic | width="100"| Cyrillic |- | Georgian | Gothic | Hangul|Korean | Hebrew | International Phonetic Alphabet|IPA | IPA chart for IPA |- | Kannada | Hiragana | Katakana | Morse code | NATO phonetic alphabet|NATO Phonetic | Phoenician |- | Runic alphabet|Runic | SAMPA Chart | SAMPA chart for SAMPA | Shavian | Thai alphabet|Thai | |} * Wikipedia:List of common misspellings * List of English words without rhymes|English words without rhymes * List of words commonly commonly mispronounced * List of words of disputed of disputed pronunciation * List of ** of acronyms and of acronyms and abbreviations.