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The 7th century is the period from 601 to 700 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. Overview The Muslim conquests began after the death of Muhammad in 632. Islam expanded beyond the Arabian Peninsula under the Rashidun Caliphate (632-661) and the Umayyad Caliphate (661-750). The Islamic conquest of Persia in the 7th century led to the downfall of the Sassanid Empire. Also conquered during the 6th century were Muslim conquest of Syria|Syria, Arab conquest of Muslim conquest of Egypt, and Umayyad conquest of North Africa|North Africa. The Eastern Empire continued suffering setbacks during the rapid expansion of the Arab Empire. Although life in the countryside deteriorated, Constantinople grew to become the largest and wealthiest city in the world. It is estimated that the Plague of Justinian killed as many as 100 million people across the world. It caused Medieval population to drop by around 50% between 550 and 700. It also may have contributed to the success of the Arabs. The History of the Bubonic Plague] In the Iberian Peninsula, the seventh century was the "Siglo de Concilios", that is, century of councils, referring to the Councils of Toledo. In the 7th century, Harsha united Northern India, which had reverted to small republics and states after the fall of the Gupta Empire in the 6th century. In China, the Sui Dynasty was replaced by the Tang Dynasty. Silla allied itself with the Tang Dynasty, subjugating Baekje and defeating Goguryeo to unite the Korean Peninsula under one ruler. The Asuka Period persisted in Japan throughout the 7th century. Events surah in a handwritten copy of the Qur'an * Islam begins in Arabia, the Qur'an is documented. * The world population shrinks to about 208 million people. The good and bad of a population drop] * The Heptarchy emerges at the beginning of this century. Roberts, J: "History of the World.". Penguin, 1994. * Sutton Hoo ship burial, East Anglia (modern England). * Xuan Zang (aka Hsuan-Tsang) traveled from China to India, before returning to Chang An in China to translate scriptures. * Timgad, Algeria, is destroyed by Berbers. * End of sporadic Buddhist rule in the Sindh. * Serbs enter their present territory early in the 7th century AD, settling in six distinct tribal delimitations. * Teotihuacan is sacked and burnt. * The religion of Shugendo evolves from Buddhism, Taoism, Shinto and other influences in the mountains of Japan. * The Bulgars arrive in the Balkans; establishment of the powerful Bulgarian Empire. * Arab traders penetrate the area of Lake Chad. * Earliest attested English poetry. * Side panels, Basilica of in Classe, are made. * 7th and 9th century - Mosaics above apse, Basilica of in Classe, are made. * 600: Smallpox spreads from India into Europe. * 603: last mention of the Roman Senate in Gregorian Register. It mentions that the senate acclaimed the statues of emperor Phocas and empress Leontia. Jeffrey Richards. The Popes and the Papacy in the Early Middle Ages, 476-752] * 606: Boniface elected papal successor on the death of Pope Sabinian. He sought and obtained a decree from Byzantine Emperor Phocas which stated that "the See of Blessed Peter the Twelve should be the head of all the Churches". This ensured that the title of "Universal Bishop" belonged exclusively to the Bishop of Rome. * 610: Heraclius arrives by ship from Africa at overthrows East Roman Emperor Phocas and becomes Emperor. His first major act is to change the official language of the East Roman Empire from Latin to Medieval Greek|Greek (already the language of the vast majority of the population). * 615: The Sassanid Empire under Chosroes II sacks Jerusalem, taking away the relic of the True cross. * 616: Khosrau II of Persia invades Egypt. * 616: Aethelfrith of Northumbria defeats the Welsh people|Welsh in a Battle of Chester|battle at Chester. * 618: Tang Dynasty of China initiated by Emperor Gaozu of Tang|Li Yuan. Timeline of the Anglo-Saxon invasion and takeover of helmet found at Sutton Hoo, probably belonging to Raedwald of East Anglia circa 625. * 618: The Chenla kingdom completely absorbed Funan. * Guangzhou, China, becomes a major international seaport, hosting maritime travelers from Egypt, East Africa, Arabia, Persia, India, Sri Lanka, and South East Asia, including Muslims, Jews, Hindus, and Nestorian Christians. * 622: Year one of the Islamic calendar begins, during which the Hijra occurs — Muhammad and his followers emigrate from Mecca to Medina in September. * 623: The Frankish merchant Samo, supporting the Slavs fighting their Eurasian Avars|Avar rulers, becomes the ruler of the first known Slav state in Central Europe. * 626: The Eurasian Avars|Avars and the Persians jointly besiege but fail to capture * 627: Emperor Heraclius defeats the Persians, ending the Roman-Persian Wars.