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  The CIM-10 Bomarc (originally IM-99 ) was the product of the Bomarc Missile Program . The Program was a joint United States|United States of effort between 1957 and 1972 to protect against the Soviet Union|USSR bomber threat. The Bomarc was a joint development with Boeing and Michigan Aeronautical Research Center. It involved the deployment of tactical stations armed with Bomarc missiles along the east and west coasts of North America and the central areas of the continent. BOMARC and the Semi Automatic Ground guidance system were phased out in the early 1970s since they seemed to be ineffective and costly. Neither of these systems was ever used in combat, so while their combat effectiveness remains untested, they are still perceived as having been an important deterrent. The supersonic Bomarc missiles were the first long-range anti-aircraft missiles in the world. They were capable of carrying conventional or nuclear weapon|nuclear warheads. Their intended role in defence was in an intrusion prevention perimeter. Bomarcs aligned on the eastern and western coasts of North America would theoretically launch and destroy enemy bombers before the bombers could drop their payloads on industrial regions. Design and development File:BOMARC A Surface-to-Air Bomarc missile The name Bomarc was created by merging the names of two organizations: Boeing 'BO' and the Michigan Aeronautical Research Center 'MARC'. The Program was authorized in 1949 and originally designated F-99, a fighter designation but was quickly redesignated "IM" for Interceptor Missile, retaining the -99 series number. The "Bomarc IM-99A" was the first production Bomarc missile, test flown in February 1955. It had an operational radius of 200 miles (~320 km) and was designed to fly at Mach number|Mach 2.5-2.8 at a cruising altitude of 60,000 feet (18.3 km). It was 46.6 ft (14.2 m) long and weighed 15,500 lb (7,020 kg). Its armament was either a 1,000 pound (455 kg) conventional warhead or a W40 nuclear warhead (7-10 kiloton yield). A liquid fuelled rocket engine boosted the Bomarc to Mach 2, when its Marquardt RJ43-MA-3 ramjet engines, fueled by 80-octane gasoline, would take over for the remainder of the flight. The "Super Bomarc IM-99B" was the 99A's successor, with a solid fuel booster rocket and improvements to its operational parameters. It was capable of striking targets within a radius of 400 miles, and able to fly at Mach 4 as high as 100,000 feet. It was 45 ft (13.7 m) long, weighed 16,000 lb (7,250 kg) with a W40 nuclear warhead as armament. The Bomarc relied on the Semi Automatic Ground Environment (SAGE), an automated control system used by North American Aerospace Defense Command|NORAD for detecting, tracking and intercepting enemy bomber aircraft. SAGE allowed for remote launching of the Bomarc missiles, which were housed in a constant combat-ready basis in individual launch shelters in remote areas. At the height of the program, there were 14 Bomarc sites located in the United States and two in Canada. Boeing built 570 Bomarc missiles between 1957 and 1964, 269 CIM-10A, 301 CIM-10B. Gibson 1996, p. 199. Canada and the Bomarc The Bomarc Missile Program was highly controversial in Canada. The Progressive Conservative Party of Conservative government of Prime Minister of Canada|Prime Minister John Diefenbaker initially agreed to deploy the missiles, and shortly thereafter scrapped the Avro Arrow interceptor program arguing that the missile program made the Arrow unnecessary. Initially, it was unclear whether the missiles would be equipped with nuclear warheads. Once their use as nuclear weapons became known in 1960, a debate ensued about whether Canada should accept nuclear weapons. Ultimately, the Diefenbaker government decided that the Bomarcs should be equipped with conventional warheads. The dispute split the Diefenbaker Canadian and led to the collapse of the government in 1963. The Opposition Liberal Party of Canada|Liberal Party argued in favour of accepting nuclear warheads, and, after winning the Canadian federal election, 1963|1963 election, the new Liberal government of Lester Pearson proceeded to accept nuclear warheads, with the first being deployed on 31 December 1963. Pierre Trudeau, still working as a journalist, attacked Pearson for the decision. While he was forced to reverse himself when he decided to run as a candidate for the Liberals in the Canadian federal election, 1965|1965 election, he remained Shortly after becoming prime minister in 1968, he announced that the missiles would be phased out by 1971. Retirement Although a number of IM-99/CIM-10 Bomarcs have been placed on public display, concerns about the possible environmental hazards of the thoriated magnesium structure of the airframe have resulted in several being removed from public view. Radioactive contamination from a fire at McGuire AFB, N.J., that destroyed an active Bomarc-A airframe on the launch pad on 7 June 1960